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赌鸽:主要奖励并不重要

Gambling pigeons: Primary rewards are not all that matter
课程网址: http://videolectures.net/rldm2015_spetch_gambling_pigeons/  
主讲教师: Marcia Spetch
开课单位: 艾伯塔大学
开课时间: 2015-07-28
课程语种: 英语
中文简介:
从本质上讲,行动很少会带来100%的回报;大多数决策都涉及风险或不确定性因素。人类决策文献中充满了这样的例子:人们做出有偏见或非理性的风险决策,这表明选择不仅仅基于预期价值。在这次演讲中,我描述了鸽子表现出类似偏见和非理性的两种研究路线,表明这些行为可能反映了一种共同的、进化上古老的学习机制。在第一个例子中,鸽子在选择具有相同期望值(产生相同的平均食物报酬)的固定和风险选项时表现出系统性偏差:鸽子在选择两者都产生更多食物报酬(相对收益)的选项时比在选择两者都产生较少食物报酬(相对损失)的选项时赌博更多。在第二个例子中,鸽子展示了一个非理性行为的显著例子,在这个例子中,它们选择的选项导致食物的概率较低,而不是提供更确定的相同食物。只有当两种选择的食物奖励都延迟,并且延迟期间有一个信号表明食物即将到来时(即,好消息的信号),才会出现这种次优选择。这表明,好消息的信号可以有力地强化行为,并有助于偏向选择。这些发现共同表明,表面上有偏见和不适应的决策并非人类独有,可能有着深刻的进化根源的适应目的。
课程简介: In nature, actions rarely lead to reward 100% of the time; most decisions involve an element of risk or uncertainty. The human decision-making literature is full of examples in which people show biased or irrational risky decisions, suggesting that choices are not merely based on expected value. In this talk, I describe two lines of research in which pigeons exhibit similar biases and irrationalities, suggesting that these behaviours may reflect a shared, evolutionarily ancient learning mechanism. In the first example, pigeons show systematic biases when choosing between fixed and risky options that have the same expected value (yield the same average food reward): pigeons gamble more when choosing between options that both yield more food rewards (relative wins) than when choosing between options that both yield less food rewards (relative losses). In the second example, pigeons show a striking example of irrational behaviour in which they choose an option that leads to a lower probability of food over one that provides that same food with greater certainty. This suboptimal choice occurs only when the food rewards for both choices are delayed and there is a signal during the delay indicating that the food is coming (i.e., a signal for good news). This suggests that signals for good news can be powerful reinforcers of behavior and serve to bias choices. Together these findings indicate that seemingly biased and maladaptive decision making is not unique to humans and may have an adaptive purpose with deep evolutionary roots.
关 键 词: 风险决策; 预期价值; 系统性偏差
课程来源: 视频讲座网
入库时间: 2021-12-22
数据采集: 2021-12-22:zkj
最后编审: 2021-12-22:zkj
阅读次数: 9